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The Emerging Concept of Cosmeceuticals
Cosmeceuticals is a concept that is growing at a very faster pace. It is an emerging concept that is the fastest increasing segment that its significance has increased at a faster pace.
The use of cosmeceuticals has drastically risen in recent years. This significantly increases the armamentarium of the clinician in improving the treatment of skin, hair, and other conditions. They are at the juncture where wellness meets beauty and growing use by consumers is indicative of their popularity. This article focuses on skin, hair, and other cosmeceuticals and their regulatory aspects. It is a term that is common for the beauty and cosmetic and beauty industry in general. So learn more about this concept that has created a firm foothold in the cosmetic industry today.

Today a new hot topic in the cosmetic industry is 'cosmeceuticals', which is the fastest growing segment of the natural personal care industry. Cosmeceuticals (or alternatively, cosmaceuticals) are topical cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance the beauty through ingredients that provide additional health-related function or benefit. They are applied topically as cosmetics, but contain ingredients that influence the skin's biological function.[ The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines cosmetics by their intended use, as 'articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance.' Among the products included in this definition are skin moisturizers, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye, and facial makeup preparations, shampoos, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic productThese cosmeceuticals, serving as a bridge between personal care products and pharmaceuticals, have been developed specifically for their medicinal and cosmetic benefits. Tracing the origin of cosmetics, the first recorded use of cosmetics is attributed to Egyptians, circa 4000 BC. The ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, and Hebrews also applied cosmetics. In other cases, such as European cosmetic known as Ceruse was used from the second century to the 19th century.

Cosmeceutically active ingredients are constantly being developed by big and small corporations engaged in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, natural products, and cosmetics, while advances in the field and knowledge of skin biology and pharmacology have facilitated the cosmetic industry's development of novel active compounds more rapidly. Desirable features of cosmeceutical agents are efficacy, safety, formulation stability, novelty, and patent protection, metabolism within skin and inexpensive manufacture.[ An attempt has been made to review the different types of cosmeceuticals and their regulatory aspects.

Skin cosmeceuticals
Cosmetics and skin care products are the part of everyday grooming. Protecting and preserving the skin is essential to good health. Our skin, the largest organ in the body, separates, and protects the internal environment from the external one. Environmental elements, air pollution, exposure to solar radiation as well as normal aging process cause cumulative damage to building blocks of skin - DNA, collagen, and cell membranes. Use of cosmetics or beauty products will not cause the skin to change or heal; these products are just meant to cover and beautify. Cosmeceuticals being cosmetic products having medicinal or drug-like benefits are able to affect the biological functioning of skin owing to type of functional ingredients they contain. There are skin-care products that go beyond coloring and adorning the skin. These products improve the functioning/texture of the skin by encouraging collagen growth by combating harmful effects of free radicals, thus maintaining keratin structure in good condition and making the skin healthier.

OLAY vitamin line, which includes vitamins A, C, D, E, selenium, and lycopene, pycnogenol plus zinc and copper, is a well-known skin care line. The treatment of aging skin with a cream containing a hormone such as estrogen results in a fresh appearance with a rejuvenating effect.Kuno and Matsumoto had patented an external agent for the skin comprising an extract prepared from olive plants as a skin-beautifying component, in particular, as an anti-aging component for the skin and/or a whitening component. Dry emollient preparation containing monounsaturated Jojoba esters was used for cosmeceutical purpose. Martin utilized plant extract of genus Chrysanthemum in a cosmetic composition for stimulating skin and/or hair pigmentation.

Novel cosmetic creams or gels with active ingredients and water-soluble barrier disruption agents such as vitamin A palmitate have been developed to improve the deteriorated or aged skin. Sunscreens Regular use of an effective sunscreen is the single most important step to maintain healthy, youthful-looking skin. Mainly, it is the effect of ultraviolet light from the sun that causes most of the visible effects of 'aging' skin. Traditional chemical sunscreens act primarily by binding to skin protein and absorbing ultraviolet B (UVB) photons (280-320 nm) and most are based on para -aminobenzoic acid (or its derivatives), cinnamates, various salicylates and benzophenones, dibenzoylmethanes, anthraline derivatives, octocrylene and homosalate. Avobenzone (Parsol-1789) is a benzophenone with excellent ultraviolet A (UVA) protection. Physical agents, or sun blocks, act as barriers, which reflect or scatter radiation. Direct physical blockers include metal containing compounds such as iron, zinc, titanium, and bismuth. Zinc oxide and titaniumdioxide are highly reflective white powders, but submicron zinc oxide or titaniumdioxide powder particles transmit visible light while retaining their UV blocking properties, thus rendering the sun block invisible on the skin. Some commercially available sunscreens are Benzophenone-8, Neo Heliopan MA and BB, Parsol MCX and HS, Escalol 557, 587,and 597.Govier et al patented sunscreen composition comprising activated platelet factor as an ingredient in a cosmeceutically acceptable carrier. Such a composition in the form of a shaving cream or foam, after shave lotion, moisturizing cream, sun tan lotion, lipstick, etc. assist in restoring the skin to its natural condition when the skin is damaged by cuts, abrasions, sun, wind, and the like.

Moisturizers Moisturizers function to smooth out the age lines, help brighten, and tone the delicate skin. Moisturizers usually incorporate emollients to smoothen the skin surface by working their way into the nonliving outer layers of the skin, filling spaces between the layers and lubricating, and humectants to help skin cells absorb and retain moisture in these layers. Healthy Remedies Balancing Lotion has been created for menopausal women containing ingredients, which diminish the appearance of fine lines, and wrinkles, uplift the neck area and moisturize the dry, sagging skin. Some of those ingredients include black cohosh, soy extract, and vitamins A and E. Augmenting the skin's natural moisture balance are a nourishing complex containing hyaluronic acid and a revival complex containing green tea leaf extract, and glutathione.

Bleaching agents Bleaching agents are used for bleaching/fading the various marks and act to block the formation of the skin pigment melanin. Hydroquinone is the most commonly used agent for 'bleaching' brown marks, liver spots, melasma, etc. Kojic acid, extracted from mushrooms, is a slightly less effective agent, either may be compounded with tretinoin or topical steroids, a and b-hydroxy acids.As with any bleaching agent, aggressive exfoliation, and sun protection are necessary for good results. A synthetic detergent bar was developed containing hydroquinone as a skin-bleaching agent. The bar is maintained at about a pH of between 4 and 7 and includes a compressed mixture of a synthetic anionic detergent, hydroquinone, a stabilizer for hydroquinone, water, a buffer which maintains the pH of the bar and excipients such as waxes, paraffin, dextrin, and starch. Similarly, a skin bleaching preparation comprising hydroquinone, tertiary butyl hydroquinone, and optionally an additional stabilizer and can additionally contain a buffer to maintain the pH between about 3.5 and 7.5.[16] Because of the maintenance of low pH and the presence of a stabilizer, hydroquinone is not oxidized and thus the product is characterized by an extended shelf life.

The appearance of the hair is a feature of the body over which humans, unlike all other land mammals, has direct control. One can modify the length; color and style of hair according to how one wish to appear. Hair care, color, and style play an important role in people's physical appearance and self-perception. Among the earliest forms of hair cosmetic procedures in ancient Egypt were hair setting by the use of mud and hair coloring with henna.
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